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 Post subject: A series involving Harmonic numbersPosted: Wed Jul 26, 2017 8:05 pm

Joined: Tue May 10, 2016 3:56 pm
Posts: 33
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$$\sum_{n=1}^\infty\,\frac{(-1)^{n+1}}{(n+1)^2}H_nH_{n+1} = \frac{\pi^4}{480},$$
where $H_n$ is the $n$-th Harmonic number.

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 Post subject: Re: A series involving Harmonic numbersPosted: Wed Jul 26, 2017 10:50 pm

Joined: Sat Nov 07, 2015 6:12 pm
Posts: 841
Location: Larisa
Let $\mathcal{H}_n$ denote the $n$-th harmonic number and consider the power series

$$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \mathcal{H}_n \mathcal{H}_{n+1} x^n \quad , \quad -1 \leq x <1$$

Since $\mathcal{H}_{n+1} = \mathcal{H}_n + \frac{1}{n+1}$ then we have that

\begin{align*}
\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \mathcal{H}_n \mathcal{H}_{n+1} x^n &= \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \mathcal{H}_n \left ( \mathcal{H}_n + \frac{1}{n+1} \right ) x^n \\
&=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \mathcal{H}_n^2 x^n + \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\mathcal{H}_n}{n+1}x^n \\
&=\frac{\log^2 (1-x) +{\rm Li}_2(x)}{1-x} + \frac{\log^2(1-x)}{2x}
\end{align*}

Thus mapping $x \mapsto -x$ we get that

$$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} (-1)^{n+1} \mathcal{H}_n \mathcal{H}_{n+1} x^n = - \frac{\log^2 (1+x)+{\rm Li}_2(-x)}{1+x} + \frac{\log^2(1+x)}{2x}$$

Integrating we get that

\begin{align*}
\int \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} (-1)^{n+1} \mathcal{H}_n \mathcal{H}_{n+1} x^n \, {\rm d}x&= \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} (-1)^{n+1} \mathcal{H}_n \mathcal{H}_{n+1} \int x^n \, {\rm d}x \\
&= \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^{n-1} \mathcal{H}_n \mathcal{H}_{n+1} x^{n+1}}{n+1}\\
&=\int \left ( \frac{\log^2 (1+x)+{\rm Li}_2(-x)}{1+x} + \frac{\log^2(1+x)}{2x} \right ) \, {\rm d}x\\
&= -3 {\rm Li}_3 (1+x) + {\rm Li}_2(-x) \log(1+x)+ 3{\rm Li}_2 (1+x) \log(1+x) \\
&\quad \quad + \frac{\log^3(1+x)}{3} + \frac{3}{2} \log(-x) \log^2 \left ( 1+x \right )
\end{align*}

Hence

$$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^{n-1} \mathcal{H}_n \mathcal{H}_{n+1} x^{n-1}}{n+1} = \frac{1}{x} \bigg[-3 {\rm Li}_3 (1+x) + {\rm Li}_2(-x) \log(1+x)+$$
$$+3{\rm Li}_2 (1+x) \log(1+x)+ \frac{\log^3(1+x)}{3} + \frac{3}{2} \log(-x) \log^2 \left ( 1+x \right ) \bigg]$$

Integrating from $0$ to $1$ we must get the result .... There must be something more sufficient and clever here , no?

_________________
Imagination is much more important than knowledge.

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 Post subject: Re: A series involving Harmonic numbersPosted: Fri Jul 28, 2017 9:01 pm

Joined: Thu Dec 10, 2015 1:58 pm
Posts: 59
Location: India
This is closely related to problem 11993 from American Mathematical Monthly Journal.

Now the problem presented in that integral form can be dealt with rather easily and one avoids having to calculate the last Euler Sum I left off .. There's an old blog post of mine with spoilers for this problem, but honestly the problem is much simpler than I ever imagined.

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